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Production and precautions for non-woven vegetables
Non-woven fabrics, also known as spunbond non-woven fabrics and non-woven fabrics, are chemical fiber fabrics that are directly processed by hot melt bonding. Most of the raw materials are polyester filament or polypropylene, which is another new type of covering insulation material popularized and applied in vegetable production after plastic film. It has good light transmission, high air permeability, strong moisture permeability, and has the characteristics of comprehensive environmental regulation such as wind protection, low temperature frost protection, disease and insect protection, and humidity reduction. Coordinate the temperature in the coverage area.
1. Main properties of non-woven fabrics
1.1 Thermal insulation
Non-woven fabrics have high transmittance to short-wave light, but low transmittance to long-wave light on plastic film. Since the heat dissipation in the radiation area at night mainly relies on long-wave radiation, the cooling of the covered area is relatively slow. The non-woven fabric can not only warm up and moisturize, but also will not cause the phenomenon of high temperature damage to crops.
1.2 Breathable and moisture-adjusting
The non-woven fabric is made of filaments laid on each other into a mesh, with high porosity, breathable and water-permeable, and automatically adjusts the humidity. Generally, the humidity of the non-woven fabric covered area will drop to about 60% as the sun rises to noon, which can effectively prevent condensation in the covered area due to excessive humidity, and can prevent or reduce leaf diseases and rotten fruit.
1.3 Shading and cooling
Colored non-woven fabric (colored cloth) has the effect of shading and cooling. Different colors of non-woven fabrics have different shading and cooling effects. Black is better than yellow, and yellow is better than blue.
The agricultural non-woven fabric has undergone anti-aging treatment. The degree of anti-aging is related to its thickness and use time. The thicker the fabric, the lower the strength loss rate. The strength of 30g/m2 non-woven fabric remains above 40% after 3 years of use, and it can be used for 2 to 3 years for covering vegetables.
2. The application of non-woven fabrics in vegetable production
The first is to make two curtain insulation curtains in greenhouses. In greenhouses and greenhouses, 30-50g/m2 non-woven fabrics are used as the second curtain insulation curtain. The second curtain is opened during the day to let the vegetables get more light, and it is tightly closed at night without leaving any gaps to achieve the effect of heat preservation and increase the temperature. 1 ~ 3 ℃, and can reduce the humidity in the shed, prevent fogging, and reduce the occurrence of diseases. To postpone the cultivation of vegetables in autumn and winter, non-woven fabrics can also be used as canopies.
The second is to cover the small and medium-sized sheds directly. In the low temperature season from January to February, in order to ensure that vegetable seedlings are not damaged by freezing, a small shed is often used inside a greenhouse, and a non-woven fabric is used to replace the straw curtain, which has the advantages of heat preservation and convenient operation. The specific method is as follows: choose 30-50g/m2 non-woven fabric, cover it on the shed, and then cover it with a layer of agricultural film, and the heat preservation effect is good. When the minimum temperature in the open field is 0 ℃ and the minimum temperature in the greenhouse is 1 ℃, the temperature in the single-layer covering film shed is 6 ℃, and the temperature in the small arch shed covered with non-woven cannon film is 7.8 ℃.
The non-woven fabric can also be used for shading and cooling in small sheds in summer and autumn, for vegetable seedling cultivation or shading and heat-proof cultivation. During the high temperature period in summer, covering the production with non-woven fabrics (colored cloth) can reduce the invasion and harm of various pests, and is conducive to reducing the occurrence of vegetable diseases such as virus disease, sunburn, and blight.
Third, the floating surface in the greenhouse is covered with heat preservation, that is, the non-woven fabric is directly covered on the vegetables after planting. The method is: cover at around 5 o'clock in the evening every day, and uncover it after 8 o'clock in the morning the next day, which can improve the quality and yield of vegetables.
Fourth, cover and keep warm with open-field overwintering vegetables. The effect is more obvious than that in the greenhouse. It can not only prevent frost damage, promote the growth of vegetables, improve the quality, but also can be marketed earlier. The method is to cover day and night. According to experiments, celery, spinach, lettuce, bean sprouts, green vegetables, etc. cultivated in the open field can be covered with non-woven fabrics, which can increase production by about 20%, and be brought to the market 10-20 days earlier.
3. Precautions for use
The production increase effect of non-woven fabrics can only be fully exerted under the premise of technical support. Choose from different coverage methods and times. When used in a greenhouse, it should also be uncovered during the day and covered at night, in order to increase light during the day and keep warm at night, and reduce the occurrence of diseases. Vegetables cultivated in the open field should generally be uncovered during the day and covered at night. If the non-woven fabric below 20g/m2 is used, it can be covered day and night, but it must be covered tightly to prevent it from being blown off by the wind. When harvesting, how much is harvested should be exposed to prevent low-temperature freezing damage from affecting the quality of vegetables. When raising seedlings, the non-woven fabric should be covered inside the plastic film to play the role of heat preservation and moisture absorption. After the non-woven fabric is used, it should be washed and dried in time, and placed in a cool place to prevent direct sunlight to avoid aging. With good storage, the service life can be up to 5 years.
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