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Non-woven fabric processing technology-spinning into web
Spunbond is a novel and promising new technology among various nonwovens process technologies. It was industrially produced by Dupont Company in the United States and Freudenberg Company in Germany in the late 1960s. In the late 1970s, different Compared with the dry process, it has the advantages of high output, short process flow, excellent product performance and wide application. The spunbond method eliminates the need for fiber cutting, packing, unpacking, mixing, carding and other processes. Instead, it uses synthetic polymers as raw materials, which are directly spun into webs, and can be reinforced by various means. , making spunbond nonwovens enter the application field of traditional textiles, and its application boundaries have been broken through. From a technical point of view, the production efficiency and production capacity of spunbond equipment mainly depend on drafting efficiency, spinning speed, number of spinning boxes, template width (quantity configuration), and the width of the web and the uniformity of web formation. In recent years, various degrees of improvement and breakthrough have been made in these key technical issues, such as speed, fiber web and reinforcement technology. It creates conditions for the high efficiency of spunbond production equipment and products, reduces energy consumption, and reduces costs, so that spunbond nonwovens have a stronger competitive advantage. From the perspective of the output of spunbond nonwovens, the global output of spunbond nonwovens in the early 1980s was only 150,000 tons/year, and by the early 1990s, its output was nearly 600,000 tons/year. By the end of the twentieth century, the global output of spunbond nonwovens has reached about 1 million tons per year, accounting for more than 35% of the total output of nonwovens, and it is still growing at a rate of 8%. For example, the production of spunbond nonwovens in countries and regions such as the United States and Western Europe accounts for more than 50% of the total production of nonwovens.
The basic principle is that, fundamentally, the spinning method is the extension of chemical fiber spinning technology. After the polymer has been extruded and stretched to form continuous filaments, it tries to lay these continuous filaments into a network, and then through self-bonding, thermal bonding, chemical bonding or mechanical reinforcement methods, so that The web becomes a nonwoven.
Spin-laid non-woven fabrics can basically use all polymers spun from chemical fibers as raw materials, but considering the spinning process performance, production cost and product use, the actual use of polymer Most of the materials are thermoplastic, such as polypropylene, polyester, polyethylene, polyamide, etc., and viscose is used in very few. Depending on the polymer, spunlaid nonwovens basically use melt spinning branching, and individually use wet spinning or solvent spinning and other special processes.
After the polymer chips are added to the hopper, they are fed into the heated extruder. The polymer chips become melt and are extruded by the screw of the extruder. The filtered melt is discharged from the spinning device by the metering pump. The many small holes of the spinneret are extruded to form many filament streams, which enter the quenching chamber, and the cold air enters the quenching chamber from both sides to cool the hot melt filament stream into filaments, and then enter the air gun or air tank After being stretched by high-speed air flow, it is laid on the meshed curtain belt with air suction below, and then transported to the reinforcement device. It is reinforced by this method, that is, it becomes a spunlaid nonwoven fabric.
Kobe Steel has improved its spunbond technology for the production of polypropylene and polyester spunbond products and the production of polypropylene microfiber (0.7 denier) spunbond products on the same line. , especially in terms of productivity. Kobe Steel has installed several unique sets of equipment in the spunbond process.
a. Twin screw extruder equipment
Using this equipment we can directly feed wet amorphous polymer chips into the extruder. Crystallization equipment or drying equipment for polyester chips is no longer required. The extruder also has good polymer mixing properties. For polypropylene spinning, the extruder can use various dyed chips to jet or mix, and the twin-screw extruder works very efficiently.
b. Electrically heated extruders, polymer lines and spinning bars provide cleanliness, high precision and a wide range of temperature control.
c. Spinning bars of sufficient width and spinneret with 8 built-in spinnerets.
d. Spinning quenching with both faces at atmospheric pressure allows free change of operating conditions.
e. A stretch spray head of sufficient width. It can arbitrarily change the filament direction and spinning speed.
f. As for bonding, electric heating thermal bonding or oil heating thermal bonding can be selected according to customer requirements.
Due to these improvements, its equipment now has:
(1) The ability to process a variety of polymers: polypropylene, polyester, polyamide, etc.;
(2) Spinning ability of fine denier and superfine fibers, the range of coarse denier is 0.7~10 denier;
(3) The range of high-speed spinning, polyester is 5000 m/min, polypropylene is 3500 m/min;
(4) The maximum production speed of high-speed fiber web is 500 m/min;
(5) The product has excellent uniformity sex.
Spunbond products are widely used in medical and sanitary products, disposable anti-fouling clothing, agricultural harvest cloth, floppy disk for rice seedlings, agricultural ginseng special shed cloth, animal husbandry warm shed, furniture cloth, shoe lining, car interior Decoration materials, geotextiles, new waterproof membranes, tourism and daily civilian products, coated fabric base fabrics, etc.
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