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How to improve the hydrophilic properties of non-woven fabrics
Improving the hydrophilic properties of non-woven fabrics and fibers can be carried out by physical and chemical methods, which can be summarized as follows.
(1) Modification of raw silk. That is, adding hydrophilic substances such as polyethylene glycol and sulfonic acid group-containing substances to the spinning solution to improve the hydrophilicity of the fiber, but this method will affect other properties of the fiber, such as weakening the crystallization of the polymer. ability, reduce its melting point, and affect the physical and mechanical properties of fibers.
(2) Surface graft modification. High-energy radiation, electron beam radiation or chemical reagents are used to initiate access to hydrophilic groups to increase hydrophilicity.
(3) Change the physical structure of the fiber surface or interior. For example, by changing the morphological structure of the fiber, making the fiber structure microfibrillated, like natural fibers such as cotton and wool, there are many micropores that penetrate inside and outside, and the capillary phenomenon is used to absorb water; it can also make the fiber cross-section deformed or surface roughened. This method can only improve the water absorption of the fiber, but cannot improve the hygroscopicity of the fiber.
(4) Hydrophilic finishing. The hydrophilic agent is covered on the surface of the fiber to form a hydrophilic film to improve its hydrophilic performance, and the hydrophilic film has a certain conductivity, which can improve the antistatic property of the material. The method is simple and easy to implement, the principle is relatively mature, and the application range is very wide, but there are few hydrophilic finishing agents with high washing resistance at present.
(5) Plasma treatment. Plasma is a fully or partially ionized gas. The gas obtains energy under the action of electric field force and is ionized. After surface treatment of the fiber with the high energy state of the gas, the surface layer of the fiber forms a cross-linked structure or provides stable free radicals. , the surface of this state will oxidize in the air, and the free radicals will eventually generate -OH, -COOH and other groups, changing the wettability of the fiber, so as to improve the hydrophilic properties of the fiber . At present, a laboratory in the United Kingdom has tested a stable glow discharge plasma reactor, which uses CO2, H2, and O2 to convert the hydrocarbon groups of polypropylene into polar groups such as carbonyl, carboxyl, and hydroxyl groups at room temperature. The material is hydrophilic, the entire chemical reaction is irreversible, and the hygroscopicity is more durable.
Among the above methods, hydrophilic finishing has the characteristics of simple method, low cost and significant economic benefits, and can increase the hygroscopicity and water absorption of the fiber while basically maintaining the original characteristics of the fiber, so it has become an applied method. The most common method. Of course, hydrophilic finishing has the problem of poor durability, and the use of disposable non-woven fabrics does not require high durability. For durable non-woven fabrics, research and development of durable finishing agents is the key. After hydrophilic finishing, the hydrophilicity and comfort of the non-woven fabric are obviously improved, and the antistatic property, softness and antifouling property are also improved.
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